Lobes of the Brain and their Functions
Lobes of the Brain are not just defined anatomically. Different lobes of the brain are thought to bear specialised functional capacities. In other words, not all parts of the brain have the same functions to perform. This is in contrast with the earlier view, which was that the brain is involved as a whole in carrying out different functions, and that no specific function can be assigned to one particular brain area.
Gernan Anatomist Franz Joseph Gall placed the foundation stone for the hypothesis of Localization of function in Cerebral Cortex. Gall believed that brain was not uniform anatomically and otherwise, and various mental faculties associated with the brain could be assigned in its different regions. Although his view was strongly rejected by eminent scientists of that time, it laid the foundation of a radically opposite school of thought and initiated debate and scope of further research on the topic.
Subsequent research and clinical findings of speech/ language areas in human brain by Paul Broca in 1961 and Karl Wernicke in 1971 gave momentum to the “Localization of Function” hypothesis, making it one of the most popular and accepted theories of brain function. Today, majority of the neuroscientists and neurologists agree on the fact that brain function is localised and distributed in different lobes of the brain.
Human Brain Lobes Functions:
Lobes of the brain are linked with the following functions:
1. Frontal Lobe - The Frontal Lobe of the brain is specialised to perform thinking, planning, central executive functions, motor function, problem solving and organisation.
2. Parietal Lobe- The Parietal Lobe of the brain is believed to carry out somatosensory perception, integration of visual and somato-spacial information, arithmetic operations as well as spelling.
3. Temporal Lobe - The Temporal Lobe of the brain is associated with language function, auditory perception, understanding, long-term memory, emotion, etc. Note that it is the Left Temporal Lobe of the brain, which is considered to be the area bearing language faculty in humans.
4. Occipital Lobe - The Occipital Lobe of the brain has a role to play in visual perception and processing.
5. Olfactory Lobe- The Olfactory Lobe of the brain control general behavioural capacity of a person.
6. Primary Motor Cortex- As the name suggests, primary motor cortex helps in movement of the body.
7. Primary Somatosensory Cortex - The Primary Somatosensory Cortex is associated with sensation.
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